Dr. Karen E. Hodges  Professor, Conservation Ecology

A sample of publications

Reviews and meta-analyses

Volkmann, L., J. Hutchen, and K.E. Hodges. 2020. Trends in carnivore and ungulate fire ecology research in North American conifer forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 458: 117691.

Hutchen, J., L.A. Volkmann and K.E. Hodges. 2017.  Experimental designs for studying small mammal response to fire in North American conifer forests. International Journal of Wildland Fire 26: 523-531.

Keinath, D, D. Doak, K. E. Hodges, L. Prugh, W. Fagan, C. Sekercioglu, S. Buchart, and M. Kauffman. 2016.  A global analysis of species sensitivity to habitat disturbance. Global Ecology and Biogeography 26:115-127.

Prugh, L.R., K.E. Hodges, A.R.E. Sinclair, and J.S. Brashares. 2008. Effect of habitat area and isolation on fragmented animal populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:20770-20775.

Hodges, K.E. 2000. The ecology of snowshoe hares in northern boreal forests. pp. 117-162 in Ecology and Conservation of Lynx in the United States, editors L.F. Ruggiero, K.B. Aubry, S.W. Buskirk, G.M. Koehler, C.J. Krebs, K.S. McKelvey, and J.R. Squires.  University Press of Colorado, Boulder. 

Hodges, K.E. 2000. Ecology of snowshoe hares in southern boreal and montane forests.  pp. 163-206 in Ecology and Conservation of Lynx in the United States, editors L.F. Ruggiero, K.B. Aubry, S.W. Buskirk, G.M. Koehler, C.J. Krebs, K.S. McKelvey, and J.R. Squires.  University Press of Colorado, Boulder.

Wildfire and wildlife

Kelly, A.J. and K.E. Hodges. 2020. Post-fire salvage logging reduces snowshoe hare and red squirrel density in early seral stages. Forest Ecology and Management, 473:118272

Hutchen, J. and K.E. Hodges. 2019. Impact of wildfire size on snowshoe hare relative abundance in Southern British Columbia, Canada. Fire Ecology, 15:37.

Hutchen, J. and K.E. Hodges.  2018. Snowshoe hare foraging behaviour in post-fire conifer forests. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 97:446-452.

Vanbianchi, C., M.A. Murphy, and K.E. Hodges.  2017. Canada lynx use of burned areas: conservation implications of changing fire regimes. Ecology and Evolution 7:2382-2394.

Cheng, E., K.E. Hodges, and L.S. Mills. 2015. Impacts of fire on snowshoe hares in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Fire Ecology 11:119-136.

Hodges, K.E., L.S. Mills, and K.M. Murphy. 2009. Distribution and abundance of snowshoe hares in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Mammalogy 90: 870-878.

Conservation law, policy, and leadership

Caviglia-Harris, J., K.E. Hodges, B. Helmuth, E. Bennett, K. Galvin, M. Krebs, K.R. Lips, M. Lowman, T. Schuur, and L.A. Schulte-Moore. 2021. The six dimensions of collective leadership that advance sustainability objectives: rethinking what it means to be an academic leader. Ecology and Society, in press.

Westwood, A.R., S.P. Otto, A. Mooers, C. Darimont, K.E. Hodges, C. Johnson, B.M. Starzomski, C. Burton, K. Chan, M. Festa-Bianchet, S. Fluker, S. Gulati, A.E. Jacob, D. Kraus, T. Martin, W.J. Palen, J.D. Reynolds, and J. Whitton. 2019.  Protecting biodiversity in British Columbia: recommendations for developing endangered species legislation. Facets 4:136-160.

Bird, S. and K.E. Hodges. 2017.  Critical habitat designation for Canadian listed species: slow, biased, and incomplete. Environmental Science and Policy, 71:1-8.

Prugh, L.R., A.R.E. Sinclair, K.E. Hodges, A.L. Jacob, and D.S. Wilcove. 2010. Reducing threats to species: threat reversibility and links to industry. Conservation Letters 3:267-276.

Hodges, K.E. and J. Elder. 2008. Critical habitat designation under the ESA: court-ordered designations use more criteria. Biological Conservation 141:2662-2668.

Hagen, A.N. and K.E. Hodges. 2006. Resolving critical habitat designation failures: can we reconcile law, policy, and biology? Conservation Biology 20:399-407.

Bobcats and lynx

Newbury, R.K. and K.E. Hodges. 2019. A winter energetics model for bobcats in a deep snow environment. Journal of Thermal Biology 80: 56-63.

Newbury, R.K. and K. E. Hodges. 2018.  Regional differences in winter diets of bobcats in their northern range. Ecology and Evolution 8:11100-11110.

Gooliaff, T. and K.E. Hodges. 2019. Error rates in wildlife image classification. Ecology and Evolution 9:6738-6740.

Gooliaff, T. and K.E. Hodges. 2018. Measuring agreement among experts in classifying camera images of similar species. Ecology and Evolution 8:11009-11021.

Gooliaff, T. and K.E. Hodges. 2018. Historical distributions of bobcats and Canada lynx suggest no range shifts in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 96: 1299–1308.

Gooliaff, T., R.D. Weir, and K.E. Hodges. 2018. Estimating bobcat and Canada lynx distributions in British Columbia from provincial records and citizen science.  Journal of Wildlife Management 82:810-820.

Vanbianchi, C., W.L. Gaines, M.A. Murphy, and K.E. Hodges. 2018.  Connectivity of fragmented landscapes for Canada lynx.  Ecology and Evolution 8:11293–11308.

Vanbianchi, C., M.A. Murphy, J. Pither, W. Gaines and K.E. Hodges. 2017.  Habitat selection by Canada lynx: making do in heavily fragmented landscapes.  Biodiversity and Conservation 26:3343-3361.

Snowshoe Hares

Cheng, E., K.E. Hodges, R. Sollman, and L.S. Mills. 2017. Genetic sampling for estimating density of common species. Ecology and Evolution 7:6210-6219.

Hodges, K.E., J.A. Cunningham, and L.S. Mills. 2014. Avoiding and escaping predators: movement tortuosity of snowshoe hares in relation to risk of habitat. Ecoscience 21: 97-103.

Cheng, E., K.E. Hodges, J.M. Ferreira, P.C. Alves, and, L.S. Mills. 2014. Conservation implications of the evolutionary history and genetic diversity hotspots of the snowshoe hare. Molecular Ecology 23:2929-2942.

Hodges, K.E. 2012. Data-free speculation does not make for testable hypotheses: a reply to Ripple et al. Wildlife Society Bulletin 36:561-566.

Lewis, C.W., K.E. Hodges, G.M. Koehler and L.S. Mills. 2011. Influence of stand and landscape features on snowshoe hare abundance in fragmented forests. Journal of Mammalogy 92:561-567.

Tyson, R., S. Haines, and K.E. Hodges. 2010. Modelling the Canada lynx and snowshoe hare population cycle: the role of specialist predators. Theoretical Ecology 3:97-111.

Hodges, K.E., R. Boonstra, and C.J. Krebs. 2006. Overwinter mass loss of snowshoe hares in Yukon: starvation, stress, adaptation or artefact? Journal of Animal Ecology 75:1-13.

Hodges, K.E. and A.R.E. Sinclair. 2005. Browse site selection by snowshoe hares under risk of predation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 83: 280-292

Hodges, K.E. and A.R.E. Sinclair. 2003. Does predation risk cause snowshoe hares to modify their diets? Canadian Journal of Zoology 81: 1973-1985.

Ruesink, J.L., K.E. Hodges, and C.J. Krebs. 2002. Mass-balance analyses of boreal forest population cycles: merging demographic and ecosystem approaches. Ecosystems 5: 138-158.  PDF

Hodges, K.E. 2001. Differential predation by coyote on snowshoe hares. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 1878-1884. PDF

Hodges, K.E., C.J. Krebs, D.S. Hik, C.I. Stefan, E.A. Gillis, and C.E. Doyle. 2001. Snowshoe hare demography. pp. 141-178 n Ecosystem Dynamics of the Boreal Forest: the Kluane Project, editors C.J. Krebs, S. Boutin, and R. Boonstra. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ruesink, J.L. and K.E. Hodges. 2001. Trophic mass balance models of the Kluane boreal forest ecosystem. pp. 463-490 in Ecosystem Dynamics of the Boreal Forest: the Kluane Project, editors C.J. Krebs, S. Boutin, and R. Boonstra. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Reptiles and amphibians

Tesche, M.and K.E. Hodges. 2015. Rethinking biogeographic patterns: high local variation in relation to latitudinal clines for a widely distributed species. Oecologia 179:139-149.

Tesche, M. and K.E. Hodges. 2015. Unreliable population inferences from common trapping practices for freshwater turtles. Global Ecology and Conservation 3:802-813.

Williams, K., K.E. Hodges, and C.A. Bishop. 2015.  Hibernation and oviposition sites of Great Basin gophersnakes (Pituophis catenifer deserticola) near their northern range limit. Journal of Herpetology 49:207-216.

Williams, K., K.E. Hodges, and C.A. Bishop. Phenology and Demography of Great Basin gophersnakes near the northern range edge. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 9: 246-256.

Williams, K., K.E. Hodges, and C.A. Bishop.  2012. Small reserves around hibernation sites may not adequately protect mobile snakes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 90:304-312.

Grassland restoration and community ecology

Ormrod, A., F.I. Doyle, K.J. Lawson, and K.E. Hodges. 2021. Niche partitioning of avian predators in northern grasslands amended by biosolids. Ecology and Evolution in press.

Melaschenko, N. and K.E. Hodges. 2020. Density and habitat selection of mice on cheatgrass-invaded sites in British Columbia. Journal of Arid Environments 181:104242.

Melaschenko, N. and K.E. Hodges. 2020. What factors predict path tortuosity of Great Basin pocket mice in shrub-steppe habitat invaded by cheatgrass? Journal of Mammalogy 101:226–233.

Buers, M., F.I. Doyle, K.J. Lawson, and K.E. Hodges. 2019. Effects of biosolids amendments on American Kestrel nest site selection and diet. Canadian Journal of Zoology 97: 1186–1194.

Gaudreault, E., R.G. Lalonde, K.J. Lawson, F.I. Doyle, and K.E. Hodges.  2019. Biosolids application increases grasshopper abundance in the short-term in a northern grassland. Rangeland Journal 41:55-64.

Gieselman, T.M., K.E. Hodges, and M. Vellend. 2013. Human-induced edges alter grassland community composition. Biological Conservation 158: 384–392.

Bats in British Columbia

Lawson, K.J., C.L. Lausen, K.A. Mancuso, L.A. Volkmann, T. Gooliaff, J. Hutchen, K.J. Teichman, A.J. Kelly, and K.E. Hodges. 2019. Bat activity and richness in beetle-killed forests in southern British Columbia. Journal of Mammalogy 100:510-517.


Mancuso, K.A., M.A. Fylling, K.E. Hodges, M.B. Lancaster, C.A. Bishop, K.R. Stone. 2021. Migration ecology of western Gray Catbirds. Movement Ecology in press.

Ecological terminology and communication, teaching

Hodges, K.E. 2016.  Enhancing student engagement and learning via the optional Biodiversity Challenge.   Global Ecology and Conservation 5:100-107.

Hodges, K.E. 2014. Clarity in Ecology: terminological prescription is the wrong route. Bioscience 64:373

Hodges, K.E. 2008. Concepts not terms: the author responds. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 6:179.

Hodges, K.E.  2008. Defining the problem: ecological terminology and progress in ecology.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6: 35-42.